Stronger effect / evidence
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Weaker effect / evidence

Styrene

CAS: 100-42-5

How can this chemical affect my health?

Acute (Short Term) EffectsData sources

Irritates The Skin, priority yellow
Irritates the Skin – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the skin.
Irritates The Eyes, priority yellow
Irritates the Eyes – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the eye.
Toxic To Humans & Animals, priority yellow
Toxic to Humans & Animals – Can be fatal on contact, ingestion or inhalation for humans and other mammals.

Chronic (Long Term) EffectsData sources

Asthma Trigger, priority yellow
Asthma Trigger – Can result in high sensitivity so that small quantities trigger asthma, nose or sinus inflammation or other allergic reactions in the respiratory system.
Brain/nervous System Harm, priority gray
Brain/Nervous System Harm – Can cause damage to the nervous system including the brain.
Cancer, priority red
Cancer – Can cause or increase the risk of cancer.
Endocrine Disruption, priority orange
Endocrine Disruption – Can interfere with hormone communication between cells which controls metabolism, development, growth, reproduction and behavior (the endocrine system).
Birth Defects, priority gray
Birth Defects – Can cause harm to the developing child including birth defects, low birth weight and biological or behavioral problems that appear as the child grows.
Reproductive Harm, priority gray
Reproductive Harm – Can disrupt the male or female reproductive systems, changing sexual development, behavior or functions, decreasing fertility, or resulting in loss of the fetus during pregnancy.
Other Health Effects, priority orange
Other Health Effects – Can cause serious damage on contact or ingestion.
Breast Cancer, priority gray
Breast Cancer – Known to increase mammary gland tumors in animals.
Gene Damage, priority orange
Gene Damage – Can cause or increase the rate of mutations, which are changes in genetic material in cells.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Asthma Trigger

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Asthmagen (A) - expert listed pending AEOC review
    AOEC - Asthmagens
    Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)
  • Asthmagen (Rs) - sensitizer-induced
    AOEC - Asthmagens
    Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)
  • Asthma - allergen, sensitizer - limited evidence
    CHE - Toxicant Database
    Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE)
  • Agent Causing Occupational Asthma
    Quebec CSST - Asthma Agents
    Québec Workplace Health and Safety Commission (Commission de la santé et de la securite du travail (CSST))

Direct Hazard » Brain/Nervous System Harm

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Neurotoxic
    G&L - Neurotoxic Chemicals
    Lancet: authors Philippe Grandjean & Phil Landrigan
  • Neurotoxic
    Boyes - Neurotoxicants
    Pattys Toxicology: author William K Boyes
  • H336 - May cause drowsiness or dizziness [Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure; Narcotic effects - Category 3]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia

Direct Hazard » Cancer

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Group 2A - Agent is probably Carcinogenic to humans
    IARC
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (IARC)
  • Carcinogen
    CA EPA - Prop 65
    California Environmental Protection Agency (CA EPA)
  • Reasonably Anticipated to be Human Carcinogen
    US NIH - Report on Carcinogens
    US Department of Health & Human Services - National Institutes of Health (US NIH)
  • Carcinogen Group 5 - Genotoxic carcinogen with very slight risk under MAK/BAT levels
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • Carcinogenicity category 2
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)
  • H350 - May cause cancer [Carcinogenicity - Category 1B]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Possible carcinogen - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer (unverified) [Carcinogenicity - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Endocrine Disruption

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Category 1 - In vivo evidence of Endocrine Disruption Activity
    EU - Priority Endocrine Disruptors
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Endocrine Disruption
    ChemSec - SIN List
    ChemSec, The International Chemical Secretariat
  • Potential Endocrine Disruptor
    TEDX - Potential Endocrine Disruptors
    The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX)

Direct Hazard » Birth Defects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Insufficient Evidence for a Conclusion - Developmental Toxicity
    US NIH - Reproductive & Developmental Monographs
    US Department of Health & Human Services - National Institutes of Health (US NIH)
  • H361d - Suspected of damaging the unborn child [Reproductive toxicity - Category 2]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Pregnancy Risk Group C
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • H361d - Suspected of damaging the unborn child [Reproductive toxicity - Category 2]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H361 - Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child (unverified) [Reproductive toxicity - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Reproductive Harm

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Clear Evidence of no Adverse Effects - Reproductive Toxicity
    US NIH - Reproductive & Developmental Monographs
    US Department of Health & Human Services - National Institutes of Health (US NIH)
  • Reproductive toxicity category 2
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)
  • H360 - May damage fertility or the unborn child [Toxic to reproduction - Category 1B]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Reproductive Toxicity - Category 2
    EU - Annex VI CMRs
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Other Health Effects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure - Category 1]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following repeated exposure - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H370 - Causes damage to organs [Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following single exposure - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H335 - May cause respiratory irritation [Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure; Respiratory tract irritation - Category 3]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure - Category 1]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H335 - May cause respiratory irritation (unverified) [Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure; Respiratory tract irritation - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure (unverified) [Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure - Category 1]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H335 - May cause respiratory irritation [Specific target organ toxicity - Single exposure - Category 3]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure category 1
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)

Direct Hazard » Breast Cancer

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Chemicals that increased mammary gland tumors in animal studies
    Silent Spring - Breast Cancer Chemicals
    Silent Spring Institute

Direct Hazard » Gene Damage

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Germ cell mutagenicity category 2
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)
  • H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects [Germ cell mutagenicity - Category 2]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects [Germ cell mutagenicity - Category 2]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia

[79637-11-9] Styrene (primary Casrn Is 100-42-5) » Gene Damage

These sources refer to a group of compounds containing this chemical:

  • Muta. 2; H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects (modeled)
    DK-EPA - Danish Advisory List
    Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DK-EPA)
Close

Inherent HazardsData sources

Restricted List, priority gray
Restricted List – This chemical is on a list from an authoritative body recommending that its use be avoided.
Flammable, priority yellow
Flammable – Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly.
Reactive, priority gray
Reactive – May spontaneously ignite or explode on its own or in contact with water.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Restricted List

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Cancer causing substances subject to workplace management or avoidance
    US OSHA - Carcinogens
    US Department of Labor
  • HAPs subject to the Clean Air Act
    US EPA - Hazardous Air Pollutants
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Precautionary list of substances recommended for avoidance
    P&W - Precautionary List
    Perkins+Will (P+W)
  • Chemicals of high concern
    SCHF - Hazardous 100
    Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families (SCHF)
  • Priority Asthmagen to Avoid
    HBN - Priority Asthmagens
    Healthy Building Network (HBN)
  • Candidate Chemical List
    CA SCP - Candidate Chemicals
    California Department of Toxic Substance Control (CA DTSC)
  • Substances selected for RMOA or hazard assessment
    EU - PACT-RMOA Substances
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • V3 2014 Substance of Concern List
    BIFMA - e3/level Annex B list of chemicals
    Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • Some Solvents
    GSPI - Six Classes Precautionary List
    Green Science Policy Institute (GSPI)
  • Chemicals of High Concern
    ME DEP - Chemicals of High Concern and Priority Chemicals
    Maine Department of Environmental Protection
  • Chemicals of High Concern
    MDH - Chemicals of High Concern and Priority Chemicals
    Minnesota Department of Public Health
  • Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    WA DoE - Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE)
  • Annex II - Prohibited Substances
    EU - Cosmetics Regulation
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • CoHC List (non SVHC)
    CPA - Chemical Footprint
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Children's Products
    C2C Certified v4 Product Standard Restricted Substances List (RSL) - Effective July 1, 2022
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • 2019 Substance of Concern List
    BIFMA - e3/level Annex B list of chemicals
    Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • Tier 1 “Do Not Use Chemicals” for Everyone
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics’ Red List of Chemicals of Concern
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics
  • Restricted Chemicals - see Credo for potential source/use restrictions
    Credo Beauty's Restricted Substance List
    Credo
  • Limit standard for volatile organic compounds content in printing inks (GB 38507-2020)
    China's limit standard for volatile organic compounds
    State Administration for Market Regulation - Standardization Administration of China
  • Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Vermont Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Vermont Environmental Health Division
  • Reportable Chemicals
    MA Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) listed substances
    Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
  • Food Contact Chemicals Database Version 5.0
    Food Contact Chemicals Database (FCCdb)
    Food Packaging Forum
  • Food Contact Chemicals of Concern List (FCCoCL) - TIER 2
    Food Contact Chemicals of Concern (FCCoCL)
    Food Packaging Forum
  • FSAP Food Packaging Product Stewardship Considerations
    FSAP Food Packaging Product Stewardship Considerations
    Food Safety Alliance for Packaging (FSAP)
  • FPF Priority Substance List from FCCdb
    FPF Priority Substance List from FCCdb
    Food Packaging Forum
  • Other Chemicals of Concern
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Food Service Ware RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Food Packaging Forum Priority Substances List
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Food Service Ware RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory - Active
    TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory (Active-Inactive)
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • GADSL Declarable Substances - Information is being collected for a non-regulatory purpose (D/FI)
    Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL)
    Global Automotive Stakeholder Group (GASG)
  • GreenScreen LT-1 (based on 2018 Chemical Footprint Project)
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Medical Supplies & Devices Silver-Gold RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Tier 1 “Do Not Use” Chemicals of Greater Concern for Black Women
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics’ Red List of Chemicals of Concern
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics
  • Potential ACUTE health effects (sudden or short-term)
    OR OHA - High Priority Chemicals of Concern for Children's Health (HPCCCH)
    Oregon Health Authority
  • Potential CHRONIC health effects (over time or long-term)
    OR OHA - High Priority Chemicals of Concern for Children's Health (HPCCCH)
    Oregon Health Authority
  • Reportable Substances and Future Restrictions in Products
    Apple Regulated Substances Specification
    Apple Inc.
  • DSL-all
    EC - CEPA DSL
    Environment Canada & Health Canada (EC)

Direct Hazard » Flammable

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 3]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Class B2 - Flammable liquids
    Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988
    Québec Workplace Health and Safety Commission (Commission de la santé et de la securite du travail (CSST))
  • Flammable liquids category 3
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)
  • H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 3]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 3]
    GHS - Malaysia
    Malaysia Department of Occupational Safety and Health
  • H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 3]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour (unverified) [Flammable liquids - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Reactive

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • [Self-reactive substances and mixtures - Type G]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
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How does this chemical impact the environment?Data sources

Immediate Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems, priority orange
Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – A single exposure may result in severe biological harm or death to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Long-term Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems, priority orange
Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – Long term exposure may result in irreversible harm to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Bioaccumulative , priority gray
Bioaccumulative – Accumulates in organisms, concentrating as it moves up the food chain.
Persistent, priority gray
Persistent – Does not break down readily from natural processes.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Hazardous to the aquatic environment - acute category 1
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)

Direct Hazard » Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H411 - Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 2]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H412 - Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects (unverified) [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Bioaccumulative

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Low bioaccumulation potential - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)

Direct Hazard » Persistent

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Low environmental persistence - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
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What safer alternatives are available for this chemical?

Find case studies related to substitutions for this chemical in SubsPORT, the substitution support portal.

How am I likely to be exposed to this chemical?

Causes skin irritation
Skin contact
Causes serious eye irritation
Eye contact
Harmful if inhaled
Inhalation

How can I protect myself from exposure to this chemical in the workplace?

gloves
Handle with gloves
glasses
Safety eyeware
respirator
Respirator