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Weaker effect / evidence

Formaldehyde

CAS: 50-00-0

How can this chemical affect my health?

Acute (Short Term) EffectsData sources

Toxic To Humans & Animals, priority yellow
Toxic to Humans & Animals – Can be fatal on contact, ingestion or inhalation for humans and other mammals.
Irritates The Skin, priority orange
Irritates the Skin – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the skin.
Irritates The Eyes, priority yellow
Irritates the Eyes – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the eye.

Chronic (Long Term) EffectsData sources

Asthma Trigger, priority yellow
Asthma Trigger – Can result in high sensitivity so that small quantities trigger asthma, nose or sinus inflammation or other allergic reactions in the respiratory system.
Cancer, priority red
Cancer – Can cause or increase the risk of cancer.
Sensitizes The Skin, priority yellow
Sensitizes the Skin – Can lead to allergic reactions on the skin.
Gene Damage, priority orange
Gene Damage – Can cause or increase the rate of mutations, which are changes in genetic material in cells.
Endocrine Disruption, priority orange
Endocrine Disruption – Can interfere with hormone communication between cells which controls metabolism, development, growth, reproduction and behavior (the endocrine system).
Birth Defects, priority orange
Birth Defects – Can cause harm to the developing child including birth defects, low birth weight and biological or behavioral problems that appear as the child grows.
Other Health Effects, priority orange
Other Health Effects – Can cause serious damage on contact or ingestion.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Asthma Trigger

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Asthmagen (A) - expert listed pending AEOC review
    AOEC - Asthmagens
    Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)
  • Asthmagen (G) - generally accepted
    AOEC - Asthmagens
    Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)
  • H334 - May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled [Respiratory sensitizer - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Asthma - allergen, sensitizer - good evidence
    CHE - Toxicant Database
    Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE)
  • Agent Causing Occupational Asthma
    Quebec CSST - Asthma Agents
    Québec Workplace Health and Safety Commission (Commission de la santé et de la securite du travail (CSST))

Direct Hazard » Cancer

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • (1986) Group B1 - Probable human Carcinogen
    US EPA - IRIS Carcinogens
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Group 1 - Agent is Carcinogenic to humans
    IARC
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (IARC)
  • Carcinogen
    CA EPA - Prop 65
    California Environmental Protection Agency (CA EPA)
  • Occupational Carcinogen
    US CDC - Occupational Carcinogens
    US Centers for Disease Control (US CDC)
  • Known to be a human Carcinogen
    US NIH - Report on Carcinogens
    US Department of Health & Human Services - National Institutes of Health (US NIH)
  • H350 - May cause cancer [Carcinogenicity - Category 1A or 1B]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Carcinogens: Category 1B
    EU - REACH Annex XVII CMRs
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Carcinogen Group 4 - Non-genotoxic carcinogen with low risk under MAK/BAT levels
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • H350 - May cause cancer [Carcinogenicity - Category 1]
    GHS - Korea
    Republic of Korea - National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER)
  • Carcinogen Category 1B - Presumed Carcinogen based on animal evidence
    EU - Annex VI CMRs
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H350 - May cause cancer [Carcinogenicity - Category 1A]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Known human carcinogen - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer [Carcinogenicity - Category 2]
    GHS - Malaysia
    Malaysia Department of Occupational Safety and Health
  • H350i - May cause cancer by inhalation [Carcinogenicity - Category 1A or 1B]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer (unverified) [Carcinogenicity - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H350 - May cause cancer (unverified) [Carcinogenicity - Category 1A or 1B]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Sensitizes the Skin

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction [Skin sensitization - Category 1]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Sensitizing Substance Sh - Danger of skin sensitization
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction [Skin sensitization - Category 1]
    GHS - Korea
    Republic of Korea - National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER)
  • H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction [Skin sensitization - Category 1]
    GHS - Malaysia
    Malaysia Department of Occupational Safety and Health
  • H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction [Skin sensitization - Category 1]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction [Skin Sensitization - Category 1A]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Potential Skin Allergens
    SCJ - Potential Skin Allergens
    SC Johnson
  • H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction (unverified) [Skin sensitization - Category 1]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Gene Damage

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects [Germ cell mutagenicity - Category 2]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Mutagen - Category 2
    EU - Annex VI CMRs
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects [Germ cell mutagenicity - Category 2]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Germ Cell Mutagen 5
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects (unverified) [Germ cell mutagenicity - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Endocrine Disruption

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Potential Endocrine Disruptor
    TEDX - Potential Endocrine Disruptors
    The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX)

Direct Hazard » Birth Defects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Pregnancy Risk Group C
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)

Direct Hazard » Other Health Effects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following repeated exposure - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H370 - Causes damage to organs [Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following single exposure - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H335 - May cause respiratory irritation (unverified) [Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure; Respiratory tract irritation - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
Close

Inherent HazardsData sources

Restricted List, priority gray
Restricted List – This chemical is on a list from an authoritative body recommending that its use be avoided.
Flammable, priority orange
Flammable – Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Restricted List

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Cancer causing substances subject to workplace management or avoidance
    US OSHA - Carcinogens
    US Department of Labor
  • HAPs subject to the Clean Air Act
    US EPA - Hazardous Air Pollutants
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Red List substance to avoid in Living Building Challenge V2.1 projects
    Living Building Challenge 2.1 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals (retired in 2014)
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Precautionary list of substances recommended for avoidance
    P&W - Precautionary List
    Perkins+Will (P+W)
  • TSCA Work Plan chemical - ongoing chemical (risk) assessment
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Chemicals of high concern
    SCHF - Hazardous 100
    Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families (SCHF)
  • Priority Asthmagen to Avoid
    HBN - Priority Asthmagens
    Healthy Building Network (HBN)
  • Candidate Chemical List
    CA SCP - Candidate Chemicals
    California Department of Toxic Substance Control (CA DTSC)
  • Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge V3 projects
    Living Building Challenge 3.0 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals (retiring December 31, 2024)
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Substances selected for RMOA or hazard assessment
    EU - PACT-RMOA Substances
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • V3 2014 Substance of Concern List
    BIFMA - e3/level Annex B list of chemicals
    Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • Antimicrobials
    GSPI - Six Classes Precautionary List
    Green Science Policy Institute (GSPI)
  • Some Solvents
    GSPI - Six Classes Precautionary List
    Green Science Policy Institute (GSPI)
  • Ingredients that are Restricted for Use in Cosmetic Products
    Health Canada - Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist
    Health Canada
  • Priority Chemicals
    ME DEP - Chemicals of High Concern and Priority Chemicals
    Maine Department of Environmental Protection
  • Chemicals of High Concern
    MDH - Chemicals of High Concern and Priority Chemicals
    Minnesota Department of Public Health
  • Priority Chemicals
    MDH - Chemicals of High Concern and Priority Chemicals
    Minnesota Department of Public Health
  • Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    WA DoE - Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE)
  • Prospective Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge projects
    Living Building Challenge 3.0 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals (retiring December 31, 2024)
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Annex II - Prohibited Substances
    EU - Cosmetics Regulation
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • CoHC List (non SVHC)
    CPA - Chemical Footprint
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Children's Products
    C2C Certified v4 Product Standard Restricted Substances List (RSL) - Effective July 1, 2022
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Formulated Consumer Products
    C2C Certified v4 Product Standard Restricted Substances List (RSL) - Effective July 1, 2022
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Footwear, Apparel & Jewelry Products
    C2C Certified v4 Product Standard Restricted Substances List (RSL) - Effective July 1, 2022
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge V3.1 projects
    Living Building Challenge 3.1 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals (retiring December 31, 2024)
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge V4.0 projects
    Living Building Challenge 4.0 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals - Effective April 1, 2023
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • High priority chemicals
    Sephora - High Priority Chemicals
    Sephora
  • 2019 Substance of Concern List
    BIFMA - e3/level Annex B list of chemicals
    Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • Tier 1 “Do Not Use Chemicals” for Everyone
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics’ Red List of Chemicals of Concern
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics
  • Prohibited Chemicals
    Credo Beauty's Restricted Substance List
    Credo
  • Declarable and Reference Substance Lists (DSL and RSL)
    IEC 62474 - Material Declaration for Products of and for the Electrotechnical Industry
    International Electrotechnical Commission
  • Limit standard for volatile organic compounds content in adhesives (GB 33372-2020)
    China's limit standard for volatile organic compounds
    State Administration for Market Regulation - Standardization Administration of China
  • Limit standard for volatile organic compounds content in cleaning agents (GB 38508-2020)
    China's limit standard for volatile organic compounds
    State Administration for Market Regulation - Standardization Administration of China
  • Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Vermont Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Vermont Environmental Health Division
  • Multiple Findings
    Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR)
    Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR)
  • Reportable Chemicals
    MA Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) listed substances
    Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
  • Cosmetics & Personal Care Products
    C2C Certified v4 Product Standard Restricted Substances List (RSL) - Effective July 1, 2022
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Food Contact Chemicals Database Version 5.0
    Food Contact Chemicals Database (FCCdb)
    Food Packaging Forum
  • Food Contact Chemicals of Concern List (FCCoCL) - TIER 2
    Food Contact Chemicals of Concern (FCCoCL)
    Food Packaging Forum
  • Substances of Very High Concern (RIVM ZZS)
    Substances of Very High Concern (RIVM ZZS)
    The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
  • Substances Restricted in Toys
    The Toy Safety Directive
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Miscellaneous
    American Apparel and Footwear Association Restricted Substance List (AAFA RSL)
    American Apparel and Footwear Association
  • Target Priority Chemicals List (TPCL)
    Target Corp - Target Priority Chemicals List (TPCL)
    Target Corporation
  • ZDHC - MRSL v2.0 Candidate List
    ZDHC - MRSL v2.0
    Zero Discharge of Hazardous Waste Chemicals Programme
  • FSAP Food Packaging Product Stewardship Considerations
    FSAP Food Packaging Product Stewardship Considerations
    Food Safety Alliance for Packaging (FSAP)
  • FPF Priority Substance List from FCCdb
    FPF Priority Substance List from FCCdb
    Food Packaging Forum
  • Food Packaging Forum Priority Substances List
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Food Service Ware RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Reportable Substances and Future Restrictions in Manufacturing Processes
    Apple Regulated Substances Specification
    Apple Inc.
  • TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory - Active
    TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory (Active-Inactive)
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Formaldehyde
    AFIRM Packaging RSL
    The Apparel and Footwear International RSL Management Group (AFIRM)
  • GADSL Declarable or Prohibited Substances (D/P)
    Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL)
    Global Automotive Stakeholder Group (GASG)
  • GreenScreen LT-1 (based on 2018 Chemical Footprint Project)
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Medical Supplies & Devices Silver-Gold RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Tier 1 “Do Not Use” Chemicals of Greater Concern for Black Women
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics’ Red List of Chemicals of Concern
    Campaign for Safe Cosmetics
  • Potential ACUTE health effects (sudden or short-term)
    OR OHA - High Priority Chemicals of Concern for Children's Health (HPCCCH)
    Oregon Health Authority
  • Potential CHRONIC health effects (over time or long-term)
    OR OHA - High Priority Chemicals of Concern for Children's Health (HPCCCH)
    Oregon Health Authority
  • Restricted Substances in Products
    Apple Regulated Substances Specification
    Apple Inc.
  • Reportable Substances and Future Restrictions in Products
    Apple Regulated Substances Specification
    Apple Inc.
  • DSL-all
    EC - CEPA DSL
    Environment Canada & Health Canada (EC)

Direct Hazard » Flammable

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H220 - Extremely flammable gas [Flammable gases - Category 1]
    GHS - Korea
    Republic of Korea - National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER)
  • Class B1 - Flammable gases
    Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988
    Québec Workplace Health and Safety Commission (Commission de la santé et de la securite du travail (CSST))
  • Class B3 - Combustible liquids
    Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988
    Québec Workplace Health and Safety Commission (Commission de la santé et de la securite du travail (CSST))
  • H220 - Extremely flammable gas [Flammable gases - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H221 - Flammable gas (unverified) [Flammable gases - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H226 - Flammable liquid and vapour (unverified) [Flammable liquids - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Antimicrobials » Restricted List

These sources refer to a group of compounds containing this chemical:

  • Antimicrobials (Surface Pathogens)
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Medical Supplies & Devices Bronze RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Antimicrobials (Surface Pathogens)
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Medical Supplies & Devices Silver-Gold RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
Close

How does this chemical impact the environment?Data sources

Immediate Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems, priority orange
Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – A single exposure may result in severe biological harm or death to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Long-term Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems, priority yellow
Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – Long term exposure may result in irreversible harm to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Bioaccumulative , priority gray
Bioaccumulative – Accumulates in organisms, concentrating as it moves up the food chain.
Persistent, priority gray
Persistent – Does not break down readily from natural processes.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H401 - Toxic to aquatic life [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 2]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H401 - Aquatic Acute 2 - Toxic to aquatic life [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 2]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia

Direct Hazard » Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H412 - Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 3]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan

Direct Hazard » Bioaccumulative

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Low bioaccumulation potential - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)

Direct Hazard » Persistent

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Low environmental persistence - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
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What safer alternatives are available for this chemical?

Find case studies related to substitutions for this chemical in SubsPORT, the substitution support portal.

How am I likely to be exposed to this chemical?

Toxic if swallowed
Ingestion
Toxic in contact with skin
Skin contact
Toxic if inhaled
Inhalation

How can I protect myself from exposure to this chemical in the workplace?

gloves
Handle with gloves
suit
Protective clothing
respirator
Respirator