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Weaker effect / evidence

Ethylbenzene

CAS: 100-41-4

How can this chemical affect my health?

Acute (Short Term) EffectsData sources

Toxic To Humans & Animals, priority orange
Toxic to Humans & Animals – Can be fatal on contact, ingestion or inhalation for humans and other mammals.
Irritates The Eyes, priority yellow
Irritates the Eyes – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the eye.
Irritates The Skin, priority yellow
Irritates the Skin – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the skin.

Chronic (Long Term) EffectsData sources

Asthma Trigger, priority yellow
Asthma Trigger – Can result in high sensitivity so that small quantities trigger asthma, nose or sinus inflammation or other allergic reactions in the respiratory system.
Cancer, priority gray
Cancer – Can cause or increase the risk of cancer.
Other Health Effects, priority yellow
Other Health Effects – Can cause serious damage on contact or ingestion.
Endocrine Disruption, priority orange
Endocrine Disruption – Can interfere with hormone communication between cells which controls metabolism, development, growth, reproduction and behavior (the endocrine system).
Sensitizes The Skin, priority orange
Sensitizes the Skin – Can lead to allergic reactions on the skin.
Birth Defects, priority orange
Birth Defects – Can cause harm to the developing child including birth defects, low birth weight and biological or behavioral problems that appear as the child grows.
Brain/nervous System Harm, priority gray
Brain/Nervous System Harm – Can cause damage to the nervous system including the brain.
Reproductive Harm, priority orange
Reproductive Harm – Can disrupt the male or female reproductive systems, changing sexual development, behavior or functions, decreasing fertility, or resulting in loss of the fetus during pregnancy.

Data sources

Chromium Compounds » Asthma Trigger

These sources refer to a group of compounds containing this chemical:

  • Asthmagen (A) - expert listed pending AEOC review
    AOEC - Asthmagens
    Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)
  • Asthmagen (Rs) - sensitizer-induced
    AOEC - Asthmagens
    Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC)

Direct Hazard » Cancer

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • (1986) Group D - Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity
    US EPA - IRIS Carcinogens
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Group 2B - Possibly carcinogenic to humans
    IARC
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (IARC)
  • Carcinogen
    CA EPA - Prop 65
    California Environmental Protection Agency (CA EPA)
  • Carcinogen Group 4 - Non-genotoxic carcinogen with low risk under MAK/BAT levels
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • Carcinogenicity category 2
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer [Carcinogenicity - Category 2]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Possible carcinogen - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer (unverified) [Carcinogenicity - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Other Health Effects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure - Category 2]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following repeated exposure - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure - Category 2]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H335 - May cause respiratory irritation (unverified) [Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure; Respiratory tract irritation - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure (unverified) [Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H335 - May cause respiratory irritation [Specific target organ toxicity - Single exposure - Category 3]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure category 2
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)

Direct Hazard » Endocrine Disruption

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Potential Endocrine Disruptor
    TEDX - Potential Endocrine Disruptors
    The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX)

Direct Hazard » Birth Defects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Pregnancy Risk Group C
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)

Direct Hazard » Brain/Nervous System Harm

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Neurotoxic
    Boyes - Neurotoxicants
    Pattys Toxicology: author William K Boyes
  • H336 - May cause drowsiness or dizziness (unverified) [Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure; Narcotic effects - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Reproductive Harm

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Reproductive toxicity category 2
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)
  • H360 - May damage fertility or the unborn child [Toxic to reproduction - Category 1B]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan

Chromium (iii) Compounds » Sensitizes the Skin

These sources refer to a group of compounds containing this chemical:

  • Sensitizing Substance Sh - Danger of skin sensitization
    MAK
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
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Inherent HazardsData sources

Restricted List, priority gray
Restricted List – This chemical is on a list from an authoritative body recommending that its use be avoided.
Flammable, priority orange
Flammable – Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Restricted List

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Cancer causing substances subject to workplace management or avoidance
    US OSHA - Carcinogens
    US Department of Labor
  • HAPs subject to the Clean Air Act
    US EPA - Hazardous Air Pollutants
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Extended Red List substance to reduce in Living Building Challenge projects
    Living Building Challenge 2.1 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals (retired in 2014)
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Chemicals of high concern
    SCHF - Hazardous 100
    Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families (SCHF)
  • Candidate Chemical List
    CA SCP - Candidate Chemicals
    California Department of Toxic Substance Control (CA DTSC)
  • Substances selected for RMOA or hazard assessment
    EU - PACT-RMOA Substances
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • V3 2014 Substance of Concern List
    BIFMA - e3/level Annex B list of chemicals
    Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • Some Solvents
    GSPI - Six Classes Precautionary List
    Green Science Policy Institute (GSPI)
  • Chemicals of High Concern
    MDH - Chemicals of High Concern and Priority Chemicals
    Minnesota Department of Public Health
  • Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    WA DoE - Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE)
  • CoHC List (non SVHC)
    CPA - Chemical Footprint
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • 2019 Substance of Concern List
    BIFMA - e3/level Annex B list of chemicals
    Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • Limit standard for volatile organic compounds content in printing inks (GB 38507-2020)
    China's limit standard for volatile organic compounds
    State Administration for Market Regulation - Standardization Administration of China
  • Limit standard for volatile organic compounds content in cleaning agents (GB 38508-2020)
    China's limit standard for volatile organic compounds
    State Administration for Market Regulation - Standardization Administration of China
  • Restrictions for Manufacturing Process
    Google Manufacturing Restricted Substances Specification (v1.3)
    Google
  • Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Vermont Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Vermont Environmental Health Division
  • Reportable Chemicals
    MA Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) listed substances
    Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
  • Food Contact Chemicals Database Version 5.0
    Food Contact Chemicals Database (FCCdb)
    Food Packaging Forum
  • Food Contact Chemicals of Concern List (FCCoCL) - TIER 2
    Food Contact Chemicals of Concern (FCCoCL)
    Food Packaging Forum
  • ZDHC - MRSL v2.0 Candidate List
    ZDHC - MRSL v2.0
    Zero Discharge of Hazardous Waste Chemicals Programme
  • FSAP Food Packaging Product Stewardship Considerations
    FSAP Food Packaging Product Stewardship Considerations
    Food Safety Alliance for Packaging (FSAP)
  • FPF Priority Substance List from FCCdb
    FPF Priority Substance List from FCCdb
    Food Packaging Forum
  • Food Packaging Forum Priority Substances List
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Food Service Ware RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Reportable Substances and Future Restrictions in Manufacturing Processes
    Apple Regulated Substances Specification
    Apple Inc.
  • TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory - Active
    TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory (Active-Inactive)
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • GADSL Declarable Substances - Information is being collected for a non-regulatory purpose (D/FI)
    Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL)
    Global Automotive Stakeholder Group (GASG)
  • GreenScreen LT-1 (based on 2018 Chemical Footprint Project)
    GreenScreen Certified Standard for Medical Supplies & Devices Silver-Gold RSL
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Potential ACUTE health effects (sudden or short-term)
    OR OHA - High Priority Chemicals of Concern for Children's Health (HPCCCH)
    Oregon Health Authority
  • Potential CHRONIC health effects (over time or long-term)
    OR OHA - High Priority Chemicals of Concern for Children's Health (HPCCCH)
    Oregon Health Authority
  • Reportable Substances and Future Restrictions in Products
    Apple Regulated Substances Specification
    Apple Inc.
  • 2nd Round Priority Chemicals
    CEPN - Chemicals Prioritized for Elimination or Substitution
    Clean Electronics Production Network
  • DSL-all
    EC - CEPA DSL
    Environment Canada & Health Canada (EC)

Direct Hazard » Flammable

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H225 - Highly flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 2]
    EU - GHS (H-Statements) Annex 6 Table 3-1
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Class B2 - Flammable liquids
    Québec CSST - WHMIS 1988
    Québec Workplace Health and Safety Commission (Commission de la santé et de la securite du travail (CSST))
  • Flammable liquids category 2
    GHS - New Zealand
    Te Mana Rauhī Taiao (New Zealand EPA)
  • H225 - Highly flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 2]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H225 - Highly flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 2]
    GHS - Malaysia
    Malaysia Department of Occupational Safety and Health
  • H225 - Highly flammable liquid and vapour [Flammable liquids - Category 2]
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H225 - Highly flammable liquid and vapour (unverified) [Flammable liquids - Category 2]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Chromium (iii) Compounds » Restricted List

These sources refer to a group of compounds containing this chemical:

  • Biological and Environmentally Released Materials
    C2C Certified v4 Product Standard Restricted Substances List (RSL) - Effective July 1, 2022
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Children's Products
    C2C Certified v4 Product Standard Restricted Substances List (RSL) - Effective July 1, 2022
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Substances Restricted in Toys
    The Toy Safety Directive
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
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How does this chemical impact the environment?Data sources

Persistent, priority red
Persistent – Does not break down readily from natural processes.
Immediate Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems, priority orange
Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – A single exposure may result in severe biological harm or death to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Long-term Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems, priority orange
Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – Long term exposure may result in irreversible harm to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Bioaccumulative , priority gray
Bioaccumulative – Accumulates in organisms, concentrating as it moves up the food chain.

Data sources

Direct Hazard » Persistent

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Persistent
    EC - CEPA DSL
    Environment Canada & Health Canada (EC)
  • Low environmental persistence - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)

Direct Hazard » Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 1]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan

Direct Hazard » Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H411 - Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 2]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H412 - Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects (unverified) [Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 3]
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Bioaccumulative

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Low bioaccumulation potential - TSCA Criteria met
    US EPA - PPT Chemical Action Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
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What safer alternatives are available for this chemical?

Find case studies related to substitutions for this chemical in SubsPORT, the substitution support portal.

How am I likely to be exposed to this chemical?

Harmful if inhaled
Inhalation

How can I protect myself from exposure to this chemical in the workplace?

respirator
Respirator