Stronger effect / evidence
redorangeyellowgray
Weaker effect / evidence

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)

CAS: 75-09-2

How can this chemical affect my health?

Acute (Short Term) EffectsData sources

Irritates The Eyes priority 3
Irritates the Eyes – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the eye.
Irritates The Skin priority 3
Irritates the Skin – Can cause irritation or serious damage to the skin.
Toxic To Humans & Animals priority 4
Toxic to Humans & Animals – Can be fatal on contact, ingestion or inhalation for humans and other mammals.

Data sources:

Direct Hazard » Irritates the Eyes

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Serious eye damage / eye irritation - Category 2A [H319]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H319 - Causes serious eye irritation
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • 6.4A - Irritating to the eye (Cat. 2A)
    New Zealand HSNO Chemical Classifications (GHS)
    New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA)
  • H319 - Causes serious eye irritation (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Irritates the Skin

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Skin corrosion / irritation - Category 2 [H315]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H315 - Causes skin irritation
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • 6.3A - Irritating to the skin (Cat. 2)
    New Zealand HSNO Chemical Classifications (GHS)
    New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA)
  • H315 - Causes skin irritation (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Toxic to Humans & Animals

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Acute toxicity (inhalation: vapor) - Category 4 [H332]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • 6.1D (oral) - Acutely toxic
    New Zealand HSNO Chemical Classifications (GHS)
    New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA)
  • Class D1B - Toxic material causing immediate and serious toxic effects
    WHMIS-SIMDUT: Controlled Products Classifications
    Québec Workplace Health and Safety Commission (Commission de la santé et de la securite du travail (CSST))
  • FIFRA Registered Pesticide
    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Registered Pesticides (Selections)
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • H302 - Harmful if swallowed (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Chronic (Long Term) EffectsData sources

Cancer priority 2
Cancer – Can cause or increase the risk of cancer.
Breast Cancer priority 7
Breast Cancer – Known to increase mammary gland tumors in animals.
Birth Defects priority 2
Birth Defects – Can cause harm to the developing child including birth defects, low birth weight and biological or behavioral problems that appear as the child grows.
Reproductive Harm priority 3
Reproductive Harm – Can disrupt the male or female reproductive systems, changing sexual development, behavior or functions, decreasing fertility, or resulting in loss of the fetus during pregnancy.
Endocrine Disruption priority 3
Endocrine Disruption – Can interfere with hormone communication between cells which controls metabolism, development, growth, reproduction and behavior (the endocrine system).
Other Health Effects priority 3
Other Health Effects – Can cause serious damage on contact or ingestion.
Brain/nervous System Harm priority 4
Brain/Nervous System Harm – Can cause damage to the nervous system including the brain.
Gene Damage priority 7
Gene Damage – Can cause or increase the rate of mutations, which are changes in genetic material in cells.

Data sources:

Direct Hazard » Cancer

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Carcinogen
    Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity - California Proposition 65 - Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act Of 1986
    California Environmental Protection Agency (CA EPA)
  • Group 2A - Agent is probably Carcinogenic to humans
    Monographs On the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (IARC)
  • Occupational Carcinogen
    NIOSH Carcinogen List
    US Centers for Disease Control (US CDC)
  • (1999, 2005) Likely to be Carcinogenic to humans
    Integrated Risk Information System Database (IRIS)
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Reasonably Anticipated to be Human Carcinogen
    Report on Carcinogens
    US Department of Health & Human Services - National Institutes of Health (US NIH)
  • Carcinogen Category 2 - Suspected human Carcinogen
    Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (CLP) - Classification and Labelling Inventory - CMRs
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer
    Regulation on the Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures (CLP) Annex 6 Table 3-1 - GHS Hazard code criteria
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Carcinogen Group 5 - Genotoxic carcinogen with very slight risk under MAK/BAT levels
    List of Substances with MAK & BAT Values & Categories
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)
  • Carcinogenicity - Category 1A [H350]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • H351 - Suspected of causing cancer
    GHS - Malaysia
    Malaysia Department of Occupational Safety and Health
  • 6.7B - Suspected human carcinogens
    New Zealand HSNO Chemical Classifications (GHS)
    New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA)
  • Probable human carcinogen - TSCA Criteria met
    Risk Management Actions & TSCA Work Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • H350 - May cause cancer (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Breast Cancer

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Chemicals that increased mammary gland tumors in animal studies
    Mammary Carcinogens Review Database
    Silent Spring Institute

Direct Hazard » Birth Defects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Pregnancy Risk Group B
    List of Substances with MAK & BAT Values & Categories
    MAK Commission of Germany (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)

Direct Hazard » Reproductive Harm

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Toxic to reproduction - Category 2 [H361]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan

Direct Hazard » Endocrine Disruption

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Potential Endocrine Disruptor
    TEDX (The Endocrine Disruption eXchange) List of Potential Endocrine Disruptors
    The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX)

Direct Hazard » Other Health Effects

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following single exposure - Category 1 [H370]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • Specific target organs/systemic toxicity following repeated exposure - Category 1 [H372]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan
  • 6.9B (inhalation) - Harmful to human target organs or systems (Cat. 2)
    New Zealand HSNO Chemical Classifications (GHS)
    New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA)
  • H335 - May cause respiratory irritation (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Brain/Nervous System Harm

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H336 - May cause drowsiness or dizziness
    GHS - Australia
    Safe Work Australia
  • Neurotoxic
    Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals, List of 201 Chemicals known to be neurotoxic in man
    Lancet: authors Philippe Grandjean & Phil Landrigan
  • H336 - May cause drowsiness or dizziness (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Direct Hazard » Gene Damage

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects (unverified)
    EU - Manufacturer REACH hazard submissions
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)

Inherent HazardsData sources

Restricted List priority 5
Restricted List – This chemical is on a list from an authoritative body recommending that its use be avoided.

Data sources:

Direct Hazard » Restricted List

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • V3 2014 Substance of Concern List
    BIFMA - e3/level Annex B list of chemicals
    Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)
  • Children's Products
    Cradle to Cradle Certified™ Product Standard Version 4 Basic Level Restricted Substances List (RSL) - DRAFT
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Formulated Consumer Products
    Cradle to Cradle Certified™ Product Standard Version 4 Basic Level Restricted Substances List (RSL) - DRAFT
    Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII)
  • Candidate Chemical List
    Safer Consumer Product Candidate Chemicals
    California Department of Toxic Substance Control (CA DTSC)
  • Chemicals of Concern
    Safer Consumer Product Candidate Chemicals
    California Department of Toxic Substance Control (CA DTSC)
  • CoHC List (non SVHC)
    Chemical Footprint Project - Chemicals of High Concern (CFP CoHC)
    Clean Production Action (CPA)
  • Substances selected for RMOA or hazard assessment
    Public Activities Coordination Tool for Risk Management Option Analysis
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Substances restricted under REACH
    Restrictions On The Manufacture, Placing On The Market And Use Of Certain Dangerous Substances, Preparations And Articles - Excluding Carcinogens, Mutagens & Reproductive Toxicants
    European Union / European Commission (EU EC)
  • Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge V4.0 projects
    Living Building Red List 4.0
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Prospective Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge projects
    Living Building Challenge 3.0 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge V3 projects
    Living Building Challenge 3.0 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Red List substances to avoid in Living Building Challenge V3.1 projects
    Living Building Challenge 3.1 - Red List of Materials & Chemicals
    International Living Future Institute (ILFI)
  • Chemicals of High Concern
    Minnesota Department of Health - Chemicals of High Concern and Priority Chemicals
    Minnesota Department of Public Health
  • Chemicals of high concern
    Hazardous 100+ List of Chemicals of High Concern
    Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families (SCHF)
  • HAPs subject to the Clean Air Act
    Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 List of Hazardous Air Pollutants
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • TSCA Work Plan chemical - Action Plan in development
    Risk Management Actions & TSCA Work Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
  • Cancer causing substances subject to workplace management or avoidance
    TRI Carcinogens
    US Department of Labor
  • Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    WA Department of Ecology - WA - Chemicals of High Concern to Children
    Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE)
  • ZDHC - MRSL v1.1 for Natural Leather Processing
    Zero Discharge Hazardous Chemicals Manufacturing Restricted Substances List v1.1
    Zero Discharge of Hazardous Waste Chemicals Programme
  • ZDHC - MRSL v1.1 for Textiles and Synthetic Leather Processing
    Zero Discharge Hazardous Chemicals Manufacturing Restricted Substances List v1.1
    Zero Discharge of Hazardous Waste Chemicals Programme

Halogenated Solvents » Restricted List

These sources refer to a group of compounds containing this chemical:

  • Organic Solvents (Currently halogenated organic solvents)
    Six Classes of Problematic Chemicals
    Green Science Policy Institute (GSPI)

How does this chemical impact the environment?Data sources

Persistent priority 2
Persistent – Does not break down readily from natural processes.
Immediate Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems priority 4
Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – A single exposure may result in severe biological harm or death to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Long-term Harm To Aquatic Ecosystems priority 4
Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems – Long term exposure may result in irreversible harm to fish or other aquatic organisms.
Harmful To Land Ecosystems priority 4
Harmful to Land Ecosystems – Can cause harm to land based plants, animals or microorganisms.
Climate Change priority 7
Climate Change – Contributes to the greenhouse effect or traps heat in the atmosphere, causing temperature changes and contributing to climate change.
Bioaccumulative  priority 7
Bioaccumulative – Accumulates in organisms, concentrating as it moves up the food chain.

Data sources:

Direct Hazard » Persistent

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Persistent
    Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) - Environmental Registry - Domestic Substances List (DSL)
    Environment Canada & Health Canada (EC)
  • Low environmental persistence - TSCA Criteria met
    Risk Management Actions & TSCA Work Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)

Direct Hazard » Immediate Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute) - Category 3 [H402]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan

Direct Hazard » Long-Term Harm to Aquatic Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Hazardous to the aquatic environment (chronic) - Category 3 [H412]
    GHS - Japan
    Government of Japan

Direct Hazard » Harmful to Land Ecosystems

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • 9.3C - Harmful to terrestrial vertebrates
    New Zealand HSNO Chemical Classifications (GHS)
    New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA)

Direct Hazard » Climate Change

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Chemicals with Global Warming Potential
    Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report, 2001
    Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC)

Direct Hazard » Bioaccumulative

These sources refer directly to this chemical:

  • Low bioaccumulation potential - TSCA Criteria met
    Risk Management Actions & TSCA Work Plans
    US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)

What safer alternatives are available for this chemical?

Find case studies related to substitutions for this chemical in SubsPORT, the substitution support portal.